The name of the city ΠΕΡΓ ("PERG"), appears for the first on this coinage, and is the first evidence for the name of the city. The rest of the structure was of Hellenistic date, built in local marble and had a marble frieze decorated with bucrania. Greek inscriptions discovered at Pergamon include the rules of the town clerks,[89] the so-called Astynomoi inscription, which has added to understanding of Greek municipal laws and regulations, including how roads were kept in repair, regulations regarding the public and private water supply and lavatories. The nearly 200 metre wide Pergamon Bridge under the forecourt of the Red Basilica in the centre of Bergama is the largest bridge substruction from antiquity.[62]. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province[18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. The church at Pergamum was located in what can basically be described as an “evil … Founded sometime prior to the Hellenistic Age, Pergamum or Pergamon was an important ancient Greek city, located in Anatolia. It was a north-facing Doric peripteros temple with six columns on the short side and ten on the long side and a cella divided into two rooms. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. This expansion was accomplished as the result of Eumenes II’s alliance with Rome in its conflict with the Seleucid Antiochus III. After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres). Pergamon or Pergamum (/ ˈ p ɜːr É¡ ə m ə n / or / ˈ p ɜːr É¡ ə m ɒ n /; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (Greek: Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Mysia.It is located 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of … An angry mob is said to have burned Saint Antipas alive in front of the Temple inside a brazen bull-like incense burner, which represented the bull god Apis. [43] [68][69], At Pergamon, Dionysus had the epithet Kathegemon, 'the guide',[70] and was already worshiped in the last third of the 3rd century BC, when the Attalids made him the chief god of their dynasty. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas.[9]. An ancient origin for "Pergamos" has often been assumed because of its appearing in the 17th century King James Bible (Rev 2:12). [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar.[41]. In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. It is known as “Bergama”, and is located in modern day Turkey. This mesa falls away sharply on the north, west, and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. [5], Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds, especially fragments of pottery imported from the west, particularly eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. It is not clear who connected these fragments with the Great Altar in Pergamon mentioned by Lucius Ampelius. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. But it was not primarily for either political or economic achievements that Pergamum was famous, but for religion. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture,". In chapter one (vs. 16) we see that Jesus is described as the one who had a sword protruding from his mouth. The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. Its structure sits on two parallel terraces, the south one about 107.4 metres above sea level and the north one about 109.8 metres above sea level. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus and Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. The Caicus … Circa 357-352 BC. This frieze is around 1.60 metres high and thus is clearly smaller than the outer frieze. History: Pergamos, to which the ancient writers also gave the neuter form of the name, was a city of Mysia of the ancient Roman province of Asia, in the Caicus valley, 3 miles from the river, and about 15 miles from the sea. It was the first city in … In this place people with health problems could bathe in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asclepius would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Roughly 800 initiates could fit in these seats.[85]. A two-story stoa surrounding the temple on three sides was added under Eumenes II, along with the propylon in the southeast corner, which is now found, largely reconstructed, in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. Pergamon or Pergamum (/ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (Greek: Πέργαμος)[a][1], was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Mysia. They also belonged to Antipas, a Roman businessman at the time. a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus), the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and, Aristocles (1st century AD), a Greek sophist. This book is described as fictional, but it is written in a narrative form. During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. Zur Entwicklung des hellenistischen Stadtzentrums von Pergamon. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. It consists of a main building and two round towers within an enormous temenos or sacred area. [8] Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops (some 5,000 men according to Diodorus) to Thibron, who was planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). Ruled by the Attalid dynasty, the city rose to prominence as an administrative center under King Eumenes II of Pergamum, who formed an … However, in the epic cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. The sanctuary was old; its activity can be traced back to the fourth century BC. To the north, the area was closed off by a high stoa, while on the west and east sides it was surrounded by simple ashlar walls, until further stoas were inserted in Hadrian's reign. This complex is identified as a palaestra and had a theatre-shaped lecture hall beyond the northern stoa, which is probably of Roman date and a large banquet hall in the centre. We’re going to be looking at verses 12 through 17, the letter to the church at Pergamos. The sanctuary of Hera Basileia ('the Queen') lay north of the upper terrace of the gymnasium. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. [81] A roofed stadium, known as the Basement Stadium is located between the middle terrace and the upper terrace. [15] Eumenes II and Attalus II (whose epithet was 'Philadelphos' - 'he who loves his brother') were even compared to the mythical pair of brothers, Cleobis and Biton.[16]. In the ancient Cretan city of Pergamon (Pergamum) is said to be the City and Throne of Satan, and home to one of the seven churches written about by Saint John in the Book of Revelation. Initially they ruled Pergamum as vassals of the Seleucid kingdom, but Eumenes I declared himself independent of Antiochus I (263 bce). The Attalids made the city of Pergamum one of the most important and beautiful of all Greek cities in the Hellenistic Age; it is one of the most outstanding examples of city planning in that period. Pergamum, also known as Pergamos, was called the greatest city in Asia Minor. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light. The city itself, Pergamum, once the center of a small kingdom, is here labeled a place where Satan has his throne, or where Satan lives (v. 13). Pergamum, the city in Hell’s Headquarters. 3. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. It consisted of a courtyard surrounded by stoas and other structures, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres. The site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. Coming from the Upper market, one could enter this from a tower-building at the south end. 641–668). Eventually through myth and legend he came to be worshipped as Asclepius, the (Greek) god of Healing. In the centre of the western half of this courtyard, stood the Ionic temple of Demeter, a straightforward Antae temple, measuring 6.45 x 12.7 metres, with a porch in the Corinthian order which was added in the time of Antoninus Pius. Die Bauwerke,", Ulrike Wulf, "Der Stadtplan von Pergamon. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. [44] At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. The pipe consisted of three channels, which ended 3 km north of the citadel, before reaching the valley, and emptied into a pool, which included a double sedimentation tank. Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. The city was the first in the province to receive a second neocorate, from Trajan in AD 113/4. The city itself was declared free and was briefly the capital of the province, before it was transferred to Ephesus. [26] With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. For now, let’s open our Bibles to Revelation chapter 2. The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant to in their own accounts. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them. The wall, with numerous gates, now surrounded the entire hill, not just the upper city and the flat area to the southwest, all the way to the Selinus river. A PICTURE OF THE CITY (vv. The church at Pergamos was married to the world. A 20-metre-wide (66 ft) staircase cut into the base on the western side leads up to the upper structure, which is surrounded by a colonnade, and consists of a colonnaded courtyard, separated from the staircase by a colonnade. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. Of all the seven cities, Pergamum was the one in which the church was most likely to clash with the ruling civil and religious … [19][20], It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180) in c. 1170. 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