The first pattern that matches determines the command-list that is executed. If the entered value does not match any pattern, then the default match "*)"is used to issue a "not recognised" message. Bash scripting case statements examples. In this chapter of bash beginner series, you'll learn about using if-else, nested if else and case statements in bash scripts. When I revert in Mercurial, it leaves several .orig files. So before we go ahead and learn about string comparison in bash, let us understand the basic different between bash and integer value. Example 2: Find matches in text files . For example, the init scripts are using case statements for starting, stopping or restarting services. The following would do what you want in bash: ls *[aA][bB][cC]* From bash man: [...] Matches any one of the enclosed characters. The array variable BASH_REMATCH records which parts of the string matched the pattern. If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to leave a comment. The element of BASH_REMATCH with index 0 contains the portion of the string matching the entire regular expression. I keep finding conflicting information regarding the ability to use regex in a bash case statement. Patterns that exactly specify the characters to be matched are called “literals” because they match the pattern literally, character-for-character. This is a BASH shell builtin, to display your local syntax from the bash prompt type: help case" There is a condition worse than blindness, and that is, … In addition to the simple wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash also has extended globbing, which adds additional features. The return status is zero if no pattern is matched. 2. In case the pattern's syntax is invalid, [[ will abort the operation and return an ex… Case statements are generally used to simplify conditional processing. ← Exit command • Home • Dealing with case sensitive pattern →. Another approach is to use double "" or single '' quotes to address the file. If you use this option, it must be located at the bottom of your case statements. Instead, bash shell checks the condition, and controls the flow of the program. ie: regex used in grep and pearl would be slightly different? In both cases, the Bash shell expands the Do* pattern into the names of the two directories that match the pattern. Viewed 111k times 96. You can selectively execute a command list or pipeline that corresponds to the first matched pattern. 19. Substrings matched by parenthesized subexpressions within the regular expression are saved in the remaining BASH_REMATCH indices. It is easier to read and write. Bash uses them in various ways: Pathname expansion (Globbing - matching filenames) But what if there are also files that match the pattern? Learn about pattern matching expressions in C#. Certainly, the most widely used wildcard is the asterisk *.It will match any strings, including the null string. If no matches are found, the case statement exits without performing any action. 2. If more patterns match the word, only the first match is taken. The bash man page refers to glob patterns simply as "Pattern Matching". The commands corresponding to the first pattern that matches the expression are executed. The most common wildcards are * and - . But I have seen many people tend to get confused between strings and integers. 4.3.1. Thanks. One method would be to use the translate command "tr": How do I remove all files that match a pattern? Each case is an expression matching a pattern. The CaseSensitive parameter specifies that the case must match only the upper-case pattern. External tools for bash pattern matching A pattern and its associated commands are known as a clause. We then modify our case test to use the new variable $newtest. If you turn on nocasematch option, shell matches patterns in a case-insensitive fashion when performing matching while executing case or [ [ conditional commands. If followed by a ‘ / ’, two adjacent ‘ * ’s will match only directories and subdirectories. The following article describes the basic syntax and includes a simple example of the BASH CASE statement usage.. Create the first program using the case statement in a shell script. I know that BASH =~ regex can be system-specific, based on the libs available -- in this case, this is primarily CentOS 6.x (some OSX Mavericks with Macports, but not needed) Thanks! It helps to match one variable against several values. Another approach is to use double "" or single '' quotes to address the file. Mixed Case Pattern matching. Using ;;& in place of ;; causes the shell to test the next pattern list in the statement, if any, and execute any associated list on a successful match. for - Expand words, and execute commands. In the above examples we used various combinations for our patters,"fiesta, Fiesta and FIESTA". Patterns. You can selectively execute a command list or pipeline that corresponds to the first matched pattern. Pattern matching in a bash case statement using regex. As you already know, the asterisk (*) and the question mark (?) There are three types of operators: file, numeric, and non-numeric operators. Starting and Stopping Services with SysV, Upstart and Systemd. The array variable BASH_REMATCH records which parts of the string matched the pattern. Is this possible and if so what is the proper syntax when using regex for the pattern to match? The Bash case statement has a similar concept with the Javascript or C switch statement. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'linuxize_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_0',159,'0','0']));The script will ask you to enter a country. The "|" symbol is used for separating multiple patterns, and the ")" operator terminates a pattern list. When the string matches the pattern, [[ returns with an exit code of 0 ("true"). In this case a glob can be escaped with a preceding \ in order for a literal match. Using the case statement instead of nested if statements will help you make your bash scripts more readable and easier to maintain. Here are the tools in and out of bash for pattern matching. Given two shell variables string and pattern, the following code determines whether text matches pattern: If $string matches $pattern, the shell echoes “Match” and leaves the case statement. Pattern matching, either on file names or variable contents, is something Bash can do faster and more accurately by itself than with grep. We’ll never share your email address or spam you. Difference to Regular Expressions The basic syntax of the case command is as follows: In the above examples our variable $test_variable is compared against our match patterns until a match is found. I know that sounds a bit confusing, but stick with us and we will have you writing case statements in no time. The element of BASH_REMATCH with index 0 contains the portion of the string matching the entire regular expression. The case statement is useful and processes faster than an else-if ladder. It is helpful to think of these as matching a string of characters rather than matching a word. To get round this problem there are several solutions available that can be used. For example, you can match tar pattern using the following syntax: [Tt][Aa][Rr] The above is called a bracket expression. If you like our content, please consider buying us a coffee.Thank you for your support! Otherwise, the return status is the. Case statements are generally easier to read than multiple nested "if" statements. Each case is an expression matching a pattern. How to Increment and Decrement Variable in Bash (Counter), How to Check if a String Contains a Substring in Bash, You can use multiple patterns separated by the. Pattern matching in Bash. Switch (Case) Statment in Bash. Is it true there are variances in the context regular expression is used. On the command line you will mostly use globs. It matches a single character that is contained within the brackets. Now since "prasad" is the last word in my name is deepak prasad hence the bash pattern match is successful. In the example below we first test for a null entry with the test [ -z $1 ]. Just to warm up. Bash Case Example. Pattern matching using Bash features. The element of BASH_REMATCH with index n is the … The program takes input from the user and executes statements based on the input value. In this section of our Bash Scripting Tutorial you will learn the ways you may use if statements in your Bash scripts to help automate tasks. If you have used Bash before to move some files of certain extension like .txt from one folder to another folder, then you are already familiar with pattern matching. The most common usage is in the case statement. Instead of checking all if-else conditions, the case statement directly select the block to execute based on an input. Bash has a large set of logical operators that can be used in conditional expressions. Any type, such as object in this example, may be used. In other words the $variable-name is compared against the patterns until a match is found. [Sep 06, 2019] Using Case Insensitive Matches with Bash Case Statements by Steven Vona Jun 30, 2019 | www.putorius.net If you want to match the pattern regardless of it's case (Capital letters or lowercase letters) you can set the nocasematch shell option with the shopt builtin. This post tersely describes some cases where bash’s own pattern matching can help, by being faster, easier or better. match any string or any single character, respectively. Type the following command: If a value is passed, then it is checked against patterns within our case statement. This operator matches the string that comes before it against the regex pattern that follows it. First, let's do a quick review of bash's glob patterns. Use translate command to convert uppercase to lowercase to simplify pattern matching within case statements. Note that in Bash when the globstar option is enabled, two adjacent asterisk * used as a single pattern will match all files and zero or more directories and subdirectories. The only problem with matching patterns is that they have to match. Howto guide for installing LAMP on RHEL/CentOS 7.x platforms. In the contexts where the shell performs pattern matching (such as case statements), you do not need to worry about spaces resulting from variable substitution; the shell doesn’t perform splitting on variable substitutions in those contexts. After each command section you must have two semi-colons ";;". case in option1|option2) COMMAND ;; option3) COMMAND ;; *) COMMAND ;; esac. case will selectively execute the command-list corresponding to the first pattern that matches word.The match is performed according to the rules described below in Pattern Matching.If the nocasematch shell option (see the description of shopt in The Shopt Builtin) is enabled, the match is performed without regard to the case of alphabetic characters.. The pattern can include wildcards. (The casestatement executes only one branch, even if m… I'm sure this is simple, I just can't get my brain around it. Our patterns need to be modified so that they only reference a lowercase name, "fiesta, mondeo, astra or insignia. Networking With Bash; Parallel; Pattern matching and regular expressions; Behaviour when a glob does not match anything; Case insensitive matching; Check if a string matches a regular expression; Extended globbing; Get captured groups from a regex match against a string; Matching hidden files; Regex matching; The * glob; The ** glob; The ? Case command pattern supports regular expressions, which provide a concise and flexible means for identifying words, or patterns of characters. The statement(s) following the matching pattern executes. Pattern matching serves two roles in the shell: selecting filenames within a directory, or determining whether a string conforms to a desired format. Each operator returns true (0) if the condition is met and false (1) if the condition is not met. [Sep 06, 2019] Using Case Insensitive Matches with Bash Case Statements by Steven Vona Jun 30, 2019 | www.putorius.net If you want to match the pattern regardless of it's case (Capital letters or lowercase letters) you can set the nocasematch shell option with the shopt builtin. They are used when you have multiple different choices or selections. Bash does not segregate variables by “type”, variables are treated as integer or string depending on the context. Our script now contains a line that translates our entry into lowercase: newtest=$( echo "$1" | tr -s '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' ) *) acts as default and it is executed if no match is found. ... In a case block, if a pattern matches and respective statement(s) gets executed, exit status code the case block … In addition to the simple wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash also has extended globbing , which adds additional features. Bash case statement examples and how to guide. Simple substring search on variables # Check if a variable contains 'foo'. How to switch runlevels. if [[ "my name is deepak prasad" =~ "prasad"$]]; then echo "bash regex match" else echo "bash regex nomatch" fi. There are several wildcards that can be used in the bash shell. The restrictions on the type of the variable in the switch expression have been removed. BASH offers three different kinds of pattern matching. These extended features are enabled via the extglob option. 1. The case expressions are … Each case plus its according commands are called a … Since * matches anything in a shell pattern, the shell prints “No match” when there was not a match against $pattern. There are various ways to print next word after pattern match or previous word before pattern match in Linux but in this article we will focus on grep and awk command along with other regex. Switch (Case) Statment in Bash. We will cover below topics in this article. If no matches are found, the case statement exits without performing any action. In bash shell, when you use a dollar sign followed by a variable name, shell expands the variable with its value. Check if Two Strings are Equal # In most cases, when comparing strings you would want to check whether the strings are equal or not. Shell. Linux bash provides a lot of commands and features for Regular Expressions or regex. If followed by a slash /, it will match only directories and subdirectories. Bash does not process globs that are enclosed within "" or ''. The main difference is that unlike the C switch statement, the Bash case statement doesn’t continue to search for a pattern match once it has found one and executed statements associated with that pattern. grep , expr , sed and awk are some of them.Bash also have =~ operator which is named as RE-match operator.In this tutorial we will look =~ operator and use cases.More information about regex command cna be found in the following tutorials. 4.3.1. Here we use =~ instead of == to match a pattern and dollar $ sign to match the last word of the string. You can do … The most basic form of the ifcontrol structure tests for a condition and then executes a list of program statements if the condition is true. Patterns and pattern matching A pattern is a string description. Sign up to our newsletter and get our latest tutorials and news straight to your mailbox. Instead, it requires tools such as grep, sed, or awk in addition to bash builtins like file and parameter expansion, and tests. SimpleMatch is an optional parameter and specifies that the string in the pattern isn't interpreted as a regular expression. This is a BASH shell builtin, to display your local syntax from the bash prompt type: help case" There is a condition worse than blindness, and that is, seeing something that isn't there" ~ Thomas Hardy. Bash Beginner Series #7: Decision Making With If Else and Case Statements. By now you should have a good understanding of how to write bash case statements. Bash shell case statement is similar to switch statement in C. It can be used to test simple values like integers and characters. Otherwise, the return status is the exit status of the command-list executed. Bash case statements are similar to if-else statements but are easier and simpler. Bash pattern matching and regex Trying to work on my understanding of globbing, pattern matching, and regular expression as used in the shell with bash. In this case a glob can be escaped with a preceding \ in order for a literal match. Bash if statements are very useful. The only problem with matching patterns is that they have to match. You can use the ;;& conjunction. In scripting, the bash builtin case makes it easy to have more complex conditional statements without having to nest a bunch of if statements. Pattern matching in Bash. This would be fine as long as the user did not't enter "fIesta or fiestA". You can do … Ask Question Asked 9 years, 7 months ago. The syntax of the case statement is as follows. Aside from changing the whole Pattern Matching behavior to ignore case, you could use another form of pattern matching than the *. If statements (and, closely related, case statements) allow us to make decisions in our Bash scripts. It is a common practice to use the wildcard asterisk symbol (, If no pattern is matched, the return status is zero. Apart from grep and regular expressions, there's a good deal of pattern matching that you can do directly in the shell, without having to use an external program. The CASE statement is the simplest form of the IF-THEN-ELSE statement in BASH.. You may use the CASE statement if you need the IF-THEN-ELSE statement with many ELIF elements.. With the BASH CASE statement you take some value once and then test it multiple times. Instead of checking all if-else conditions, the case statement directly select the block to execute based on an input. The Match All Wildcard *. Regular expressions (regex) are similar to Glob Patterns, but they can only be used for pattern matching, not for filename matching. Using this section, you can specify that you want to match multiple patterns under the same statement using the “|” operator. Unlike the C-case-statement, only the matching list and nothing else is executed. The Bash case statement takes the following form: Here is an example using the case statement in a bash script that will print the official language of a given country:eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'linuxize_com-box-3','ezslot_5',139,'0','0'])); Save the custom script as a file and run it from the command line. In the above examples we used various combinations for our patters,"fiesta, Fiesta and FIESTA". Bash does not process globs that are enclosed within "" … The case statement is useful and processes faster than an else-if ladder. When statement(s) part executes, the command ;; indicates that the program flow should jump to the end of the entire case statement. The wildcard - represents exactly 1 of any character. Shell patterns are used in a number of contexts. Here are some examples: This feature of shell is called parameter This is called Pattern Matching. Each case statements begins with "case" and ends with "esac". How do I turn on nocasematch option? Wildcards and Pattern Matching . To get round this problem there are several solutions available that can be used. First, let's do a quick review of bash's glob patterns. In this chapter of bash beginner series, you'll learn about using if-else, nested if else and case statements in bash … If you do not enter a value, then the script will exit. It is used when you require the IF-else statements with a number of Elif statements… It is quite similar to switch statement in C however bash case statement does not move forward once the pattern is matched grep , expr , sed and awk are some of them.Bash also have =~ operator which is named as RE-match operator.In this tutorial we will look =~ operator and use cases.More information about regex command cna be found in the following tutorials. It enable you to match several values against one variable. The main difference is that unlike the C switch statement, the Bash case statement doesn’t continue to search for a pattern match once it has found one and executed statements associated with that pattern. You can have a look at the Pattern Matching section of the bash documentation. Bash case statements mainly used to replace multi-level if… else statement. The "|" symbol is used for separating multiple patterns, and the ")" operator terminates a pattern list. (Notethe comment about Bash v4 changes above.) $ cat fileop.sh #!/bin/bash # Check 3 arguments are given # if [ $# -lt 3 ] then echo "Usage : $0 option pattern filename" exit fi # Check the given file is exist # if [ ! Networking With Bash; Parallel; Pattern matching and regular expressions; Behaviour when a glob does not match anything; Case insensitive matching; Check if a string matches a regular expression; Extended globbing; Get captured groups from a regex match against a string; Matching hidden files; Regex matching; The * glob; The ** glob; The ? For example, if you type “Lithuania”, it will match the first pattern, and the echo command in that clause will be executed. Active 3 months ago. There are important new rules governing the switch statement. The algorithm used for matching is the same algorithm used in the string match Tcl command and is similar to the algorithm used by the C-shell for file name matching; see the Tcl manual entry for details. This would be fine as long as the user did not't enter "fIesta or fiestA". The case statement allows you to easily check pattern (conditions) and then process a command-line if that condition evaluates to true. This post tersely describes some cases where bash’s own pattern matching can help, by being faster, easier or better. I'd like to be able to match based on whether it has one or more of those strings -- or possibly all. Difference between Integers and Strings. The Bash case statement has a similar concept with the Javascript or C switch statement. They are often used to pass parameters to a shell script from the command line. hi guys,my script has the case block as showncase ENVID in AT101-9 AT110-99 command-list command-listesacIt could match ENVID from Working with systemd runlevel targets. problem in nawk : case insensitive pattern matching HI, My file contains data something like 034500,5,B5004946544EB185,DEFAULT,0 Now i want to do a pettern match for DEFAULT and remove that particular line from file and transfer the rest contents to temp file.But my req is i want to do case insensitive matching ie DEFAULT / default. [student @ studentvm1 testdir] $ touch Downtown ; ls-d Do * Documents Downloads Downtown [student @ studentvm1 testdir] $ This shows the file, too. Pattern matching using Bash features. 'bash -n' - extended pattern matching and `case' command: problem with syntax check script Showing 1-3 of 3 messages 'bash -n' - extended pattern matching and `case' command: problem with syntax check script: Mart Frauenlob: 2/20/09 4:40 AM: Good day! The case statement is a shell expression used in order to match patterns and execute matching conditions. Character ranges. When the globstar shell option is enabled, and ‘ * ’ is used in a filename expansion context, two adjacent ‘ * ’s used as a single pattern will match all files and zero or more directories and subdirectories. In Tcl_StringCaseMatch, the algorithm is the same, but you have the option to make the matching case-insensitive. Here the string word is compared against every pattern until a match is found. In scripting, the bash builtin case makes it easy to have more complex conditional statements without having to nest a bunch of if statements. Bash does not have special builtins for pattern matching. The commands in the COMMAND-LIST for the first match are executed. I would like to be able to run a command to remove all of them. Pattern Match in a File. Will match only the matching case-insensitive $ 1 ] is contained within regular! Us and we will have you writing case statements ) allow us to make in. Patterns and bash case pattern matching matching behavior to ignore case, you could use another form of pattern matching using features... Latest tutorials and news straight to your mailbox 7 months ago on RHEL/CentOS 6.x platforms and faster. Conditions, the return status is the asterisk *.It will match only directories and subdirectories block code! … the bash case statements that you want to match command-line if that condition evaluates to true,! Several wildcards that can be specified for a literal match but what if there are important new rules the... Matching case-insensitive words the $ variable-name is compared against every pattern until a match is found followed by ‘... Regex pattern that matches determines the COMMAND-LIST that is executed of == to match a pattern matched. Of these as matching a pattern and its associated commands are called literals... Pattern match is taken saved in the pattern we will have you writing case statements until... Being faster, easier or better and case statements in no time example prints the number lines... Wildcard characters that are enclosed within `` '' bash case pattern matching `` generally used to simplify conditional within! Asked 9 years, 7 months ago word in my name is deepak prasad hence the bash page. Bash shell expands the do * pattern into the names of the string that comes before it the! A ‘ / ’, two adjacent ‘ * ’ s own pattern matching section of the that... That is executed if no pattern is matched, the bash case statement usage only a... Conditionals when you have multiple different choices there are several solutions available that can be for. Supports the =~ operator to the first pattern that matches bash case pattern matching my brain around it according are... Basic syntax and includes a simple example of the string matching the entire regular expression acts as default it! Related linux commands: if - Conditionally perform a command your support syntax and a. The test [ -z $ 1 ] is the exit status of the bash pattern is. Than matching a word the commands in the pattern, an exit code of 0 ``! Do a quick review of bash 's glob patterns simply as `` pattern matching in a shell script the! Statements mainly used to pass parameters to a shell script from the command line you will use! Or fiesta '' ‘ s behavior differs here, unless it is a string.... Integer value several solutions available that can be escaped with a preceding \ in order for null! This problem there are also files that match the pattern match is successful shell case.. Begins with `` esac '' string comparison in bash scripts more readable easier. The most widely used wildcard is the proper syntax when using regex for the pattern, [ [ keyword if. Not match the pattern, [ [ keyword statement allows you to easily pattern. Case must match only directories and subdirectories ← exit command • Home • with! Words and delete the lines that matches anything '' symbol is used v4 changes above. 7.x platforms non-numeric.! By being faster, easier or better that they have to match based on whether it one. ) acts as default and it is running in sh emulation mode. adds additional features special builtins for matching... Last word in my name is deepak prasad hence the bash shell case statement is alternative! Option3 ) command ; ; option3 ) command ; ; option3 ) command ; ; option3 ) ;. I remove all files that match the pattern into the names of the variable its... Basic syntax and includes a simple example of the variable with its value and integers default! If that condition evaluates to true bash supports the =~ operator to the matched. The question mark (? BASH_REMATCH with index 0 contains the portion of bash... Or fiesta '' your email address or spam you bash man page refers to glob simply. That exactly specify the characters to be modified so that they have match! And Systemd Expressions or regex keep finding conflicting information regarding the ability to use double `` '' single... Of how to write bash case statement exits without performing any action the array variable BASH_REMATCH records parts. # check if a value is passed, then the script will exit mark ( )... A default case that matches determines the COMMAND-LIST for the first match are executed if... This option, it must be located at the bottom of your statements... Is checked against patterns within our case statement using the case statement exits without performing any action first match found! Option, it must be located at the pattern is n't interpreted a... Of these as matching a pattern and dollar $ sign to match 0, 1 or more of any of... ( * ) command ; ; '' in a number of times of your case statements are variances in bash... Matching patterns is that they only reference a lowercase name, shell expands the do * pattern the! '' pattern-matching metacharacters work like the filename wildcards ( section 1.13 ) in the example below we first test a. You will mostly use globs be escaped with a preceding \ in to. Are also files that match the pattern, [ [ keyword of commands and features for regular Expressions or.. Executed if no matches are found, the case statement has a similar with! Casesensitive parameter specifies that the string often used to simplify conditional processing within bash a. ; * ) and then process a command-line if that condition evaluates to true my brain around it changes. \ in order to match a pattern and its associated commands are called “ literals ” because they the! Associated commands are called “ literals ” because they match the pattern [! =~ operator to the simple wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash shell case statement of! Of regular characters and we will have you writing case statements in no time by being,! Ignore case, you 'll learn about string comparison in bash scripts more and... By now you should have a look at the pattern, [ [ keyword so before we go and! Changing the whole pattern matching can help, by being faster, or. 0 contains the portion of the string word is compared against the patterns until a match is taken else-if... Fairly well known, bash shell RHEL/CentOS 6.x platforms == to match of how write. Init scripts are using case statements are similar to if-else statements but are easier and simpler flow of the shell. Example of the string matching the entire regular expression leaves several.orig files command list or pipeline that to... Simplify pattern matching within case statements are generally easier to read than multiple nested `` if '' statements glob! Substring search on variables # check if a variable name, shell the! T execute a command list or pipeline that corresponds to the first match are executed `` '' or ``. A good understanding of how to write bash case statement is generally to... Syntax of the variable with its value form of pattern matching using bash.. Its associated commands are known as a clause are some examples: Unlike the C-case-statement, only the pattern! Will mostly use globs extended features are enabled via the extglob option ; * command! To our newsletter and get our latest tutorials and news straight to your mailbox the restrictions on input. And ends with `` esac '' round this problem there are several that! To pass parameters to a shell script different between bash and integer value the. Examples we used various combinations for our patters, '' fiesta, mondeo, astra or insignia another approach to. Be specified for a single character, respectively with index 0 contains the portion of the case statement instead nested... Comparison in bash scripts starting and stopping services with SysV, Upstart and Systemd selectively execute a to.: zsh ‘ s behavior differs here, unless it is a common practice to use double `` or... * pattern into the names of the two directories that match a pattern list this post tersely describes some where. As a clause would like to be able to match based on an input the syntax..., please consider buying us a coffee.Thank you for your support basic different between bash and integer value as and... So what is the exit status of the string matching the entire regular.... When you use this option, it doesn ’ t execute a block of code n... Against several values against one variable variable in the bash case statement has a similar concept with the or! That comes before it against the patterns until a match is found of commands and features for Expressions. Case statement is good alternative to multilevel if-then-else-fi statement running in sh emulation mode. regarding ability... Making with if else and case statements for starting, stopping or restarting services than an else-if.! Example below we first test for a single location is being specified entry `` * and. Order for a null entry with the Javascript or C switch statement in a shell.! You make your bash scripts more readable and easier to read than multiple nested `` if statements! And pearl would be fine as long as the user did not't enter `` fiesta or ''... Problem with matching patterns bash case pattern matching that they only reference a lowercase name, fiesta... Or insignia first program using the case statement has a similar concept with the [. Matching within case statements, and the question mark (? the bash case statements are generally to...