In: de las Salas (ed) Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America, pp 17–47. Working Paper. Docum., Wageningen, The Netherlands, Atmosoedaryo S and Wijayakusumah K (1979) Ecological aspects of agroforestry in the lowland humid tropics: Southeast Asia. In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 37–49. silvopastoral (pasture/animals + trees), and agrosilvopastoral (crops + pasture/animals + trees). In: Lockeretz W (ed) Environmentally Sound Agriculture, pp 351–374. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Stewart PJ (1981) Forestry, agriculture and land husbandry. Structural classification of systems Classification of agroforestery based on components Agrisilviculture- crops (including shrubs / vines & tress Silvipastoral – pasture / animals & tree agro–silvipastoral – crops, pasture, animals & tree (Nair, 1999 ) 7. Centre for Agric Pub Docum, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Editors (1982) What is agroforestry? In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 161–171. gives a brief description of each practice before describing the components which are present, e.g. Classification will depend upon the purpose for which it is intended. SEARCA, College, Laguna, The Philippines, Arnold GW and de Wit CT (eds) (1976) Critical Evaluation of Systems Analysis in Ecosystem Research and Management. Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Congress. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India, Nair PKR (1979) Intensive Multiple Cropping with Coconuts in India: Principles, Programmes and Prospects. The resulting system name can thus have any one of the three basic categories as a prefix; for example agrisilvicultural system for soil conservation. ICRAF, Nairobi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry, P.O. ISNAR, The Hague, Nair PKR (1983b) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. Presented at the Workshop on Biomass Energy Systems: Building Blocks for Sustainable Agriculture. We classified agroforestry systems in China by system type and system unit. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. Several criteria can be used in classifying them, but the most common include the […] Agroforestry Systems 2:215–228, Lundgren B (1982) The use of agroforestry to improve the productivity of converted tropical land. In: Chang J (ed) Report of a Seminar on Agricultural Research in Rwanda: Assessment and Perspectives, pp 93–99. The first 3 chapters are: Introduction to agroforestry (MacDicken, K.G. Agroforestry Systems 2:73–86, Fonzen P and Oberholzer E (1984) Use of multipurpose trees in hill farming systems in western Nepal. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. Centre for Agric. Agroforestry Systems Agro-Ecosystems 3:291–302, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1981) Developing stable and productive biological cropping systems for the humid tropics. In: Buck L (ed) Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, 1980, pp 419–434. ICRAF, Nairobi, Combe J and Budowski G (1979) Classifiacation of agroforestry techniques. Other specialized AF systems such as apiculture with trees, aquaculture in mangrove areas, multipurpose tree lots, and so on, can also be specified. UNU, Tokyo, Young A (1984) Evaluation of agroforestry potential in sloping areas. SEARCA, College, Laguna, The Philippines, Arnold GW and de Wit CT (eds) (1976) Critical Evaluation of Systems Analysis in Ecosystem Research and Management. ICRAF, Nairobi, von Maydell H-J (1984) Agroforestry Systems and Practices in the Arid and Semi-Arid Parts of Africa. McClain Printing Co., West Virginia, Lyanage M de S, Tajwani KG and Nair PKR (1984) Intercropping under coconuts in Sri Lanka. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Ambar S (1982) Overview of the results of tradition alagroforestry study in Ci-Tarum river basin, West Java. Agroforestry systems 2:281–292, King KFS (1979) Agroforestry and the utilization of fragile ecosystems. Ecological classification 28 3.4. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, de Wit CT and J Goudrian (1974) Simulation of Ecological Processes. Structurally, the system can be grouped as agrisilviculture (crops — including tree/shrub crops — and trees). Swiss Devpt Corp, Berne, and Swiss Federal Inst of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, Pollisco F (1979) National, bilateral and multilateral agroforestry projects in Asia. Kilimanjaro, N. Tanzania. The purpose of a general classification is to identify different types of agroforestry and to group those that are similar, thereby facilitating communication and the organized storage of information. These can be productive functions (production of ‘basic needs’ such as food, fodder, fuelwood, other products, etc.) Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin (West), Nair PKR (1983a) Some promising agroforestry technologies for hilly and semi-arid regions of Rwanda. Classification of agroforestry systems by P. K. R. Nair, 1985, International Council for Research in Agroforestry edition, in English Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In: Schirmer A (ed) The Role of Agroforestry in the Pacific, pp 53–70. United Nations University, Tokyo, Mann HS and Saxena SK (eds) (1980) Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) in the Indian Desert. volume 3, pages97–128(1985)Cite this article. EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service . 2 . A … In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 37–49. ‘Gigante’) woodlots: an agroforestry alternative for the small farmer in Paraguay. NAS, Washington, DC, Neumann I (1983) Use of trees in smallholder agriculture in tropical highlands. Pub. Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Nair PKR, Fernandes ECM and Wambugu PN (1984) Multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs for agroforestry. Subscription will auto renew annually. ICAR, New Delhi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983a) A Global Inventory of Agroforestry Systems: A Project Announcement. In common parlance, however, these terms are used loosely, and almost synonymously. ICRAF/Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) (1979) International Cooperation in Agroforestry. Classification of agroforestry systems 21 3.1. An AF system refers to a type … FAO, Rome, Felker P (1978) State of the Art: Acacia albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual Crops. ISNAR, The Hague, McDonald LH (ed) (1982) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. Each of these criteria has merits and applicability in specific situations, but they have limitations too so that no single classification scheme can be accepted as universally applicable. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. Subscription will auto renew annually. On an ecological basis, systems can be grouped for any defined agro-ecological zone such as lowland humid tropics, arid and semi-arid tropics, tropical highlands, and so on. Other specialized AF systems such as apiculture with trees, aquaculture in mangrove areas, multipurpose tree lots, and so on, can also be specified. A framework for classification 31 3.6. Agroforestry Systems 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS (1984) Paraiso (Melia azedarach var. The various terminologies and classifications used in the literature are reviewed. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Little EL (1983) Common Fuelwood Crops: A Handbook for their Identification. Forestry Faculty, Gadjah Mada Univ. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 79–102. In: Furtado JI and Ruddle K (eds) Tropical Resource Ecology and Development. Agro silvicultural . ICRAF, Nairobi, Sheikh MI and Chima AM (1976) Effect of windbreaks (tree rows) on the yield of wheat crop. 1) Agroforestry is any sustainable land-use system that maintains or increases total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops (perennials) and/or livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time, using management practices that suit the social and cultural characteristics of the local people and the economic and eco­logical conditions of the area. 5 Classification of Agroforestry Systems d. Classification based on stratification: a. Subsequently the systems can be grouped according to any of the purpose-oriented criteria. Each of these criteria has merits and applicability in specific situations, but they have limitations too so that no single classification scheme can be accepted as universally applicable. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, Hoekstra DA and Kuguru FM (eds) (1982) Agroforestry Systems for Small-Scale Farmers. Swiss Devpt Corp, Berne, and Swiss Federal Inst of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, Pollisco F (1979) National, bilateral and multilateral agroforestry projects in Asia. ICRAF, Niarobi (unpublished), Johnson DV and Nair PKR (1984) Perennial crop-based agroforestry systems in northeast Brazil. The most common includes the “Nair” Agroforestry system of classification. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India, Nair PKR (1979) Intensive Multiple Cropping with Coconuts in India: Principles, Programmes and Prospects. Some of the major AF systems and practices of the tropics are grouped according to such a framework. United Nations University, Tokyo, Grainger A (1980) The development of tree crops and agroforestry systems. PubMed Google Scholar, Nair, P.K.R. ICRAF, Nairobi, Nair PKR (1983c) Tree integration on farmlands for sustained productivity of smallholdings. The words ‘system’, ‘sub-system’ and ‘practice’ are commonly used in AF literature. Working Paper 27. PDF | On Nov 7, 2013, RP Gunaga and others published Agroforestry: A land use system for conservation of plant genetic resources | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate CLASSIFICATION OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS (NAIR, 1985) Structural basis: refers to the composition of the components, including spatial arrangement of the woody component, vertical stratification of all the components, and temporal arrangement of the different components. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Alvin R and Nair PKR (1985) Agroforestry practices involving agricultural plantation crops in southeast Bahia, Brazil. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp 161–168. Butterworth, London, Yandji E (1982) Traditional agroforestry systems in the Central African Republic. The most commonly used ones are the system's structure (composition and arrangement of components), its function, its socio-economic scale and level of management, and its ecological spread. Pub. Classification of agro-forestry techniques. On an ecological basis, systems can be grouped for any defined agro-ecological zone such as lowland humid tropics, arid and semi-arid tropics, tropical highlands, and so on. Working Paper Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, von Maydell H-J (1979) The development of agroforestry in the Sehelian zone of Africa. Agroforestry Systems 2:198–197, Getahun A, Wilson GF and Kang BT (1982) The role of trees in the farming systems in the humid tropics. ; Vergara, N.T. A secondary scheme further classifies these in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity of the tree components involved. CIAT, Cali, Colombia, Heuveldop J and Lagemann J (eds) (1981)Agroforestry: Proc of a seminar held at CATIE, 23 February-3 March, 1981. Presented at the Workshop on Biomass Energy Systems: Building Blocks for Sustainable Agriculture. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, de Wit CT and J Goudrian (1974) Simulation of Ecological Processes. Classification based on function of systems 26 3.3. The socio-economic scale of production and level of management of the system can be used as the criteria to designate systems as commercial, ‘intermediate’, or subsistence. Part of Springer Nature. John Wiley, Chichester, England (in press), Nair PKR (1985b) Fruit Trees in Agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems (in press), Ambar S (1982) Overview of the results of tradition alagroforestry study in Ci-Tarum river basin, West Java. Distribution of agroforestry systems in the tropics 39 4.1. ICRAF, Niarobi (unpublished), Johnson DV and Nair PKR (1984) Perennial crop-based agroforestry systems in northeast Brazil. The words ‘system’, ‘sub-system’ and ‘practice’ are commonly used in AF literature. Agroforestry Systems 1: 269–273, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983b) Draft guidelines for agroforestry diagnosis and design. Intern Tree Crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB (ed) (1982) Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research. In: Stonehouse B (ed) A Scientific Approach to Organic Farming, pp 193–203. CATIE, Costa Rica, de las Salas G (ed) (1979) Proceedings of the Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America. The peculiar history of agroforestry and the complex relationships between agriculture and forestry explain some misunderstandings about the concepts and classification of agroforestry and reveal that, contrarily to common perception, agroforestry is closer to agriculture than to forestry. Paper presented to The Regional Seminar-Workshop in Agroforestry, 18–22 October, 1982. Paper to the VI World Congress for Rural Sociology. CAZRI Monograph No 11. PubMed Google Scholar, Nair, P.K.R. Report of the Special Consultant. Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Congress. Centre for Agric Pub Docum, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Editors (1982) What is agroforestry? Hence on the basis of structure agroforestry system can be grouped into two categories. Functional basis refers to the main output and role of components, especially the woody ones. Report of the Special Consultant, ICRAF, Nairobi (unpublished), Wiersum KF (1980) Observations on agroforestry in Java, Indonesia. ICRAF's experience with an interdisciplinary methodology. Intern Tree Crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB (ed) (1982) Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research. Praeger, New York, Panday K (1982) Fodder Trees and Tree fodder in Nepal. Sub-system and practice are lower-order terms in the hierarchy with lesser magnitudes of role, content and complexity. Agroforest Syst 3, 97–128 (1985). Agroforestry Systems 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS (1984) Paraiso (Melia azedarach var. According to Nair:-(1987), Agroforestry system is classified according to the following sets of cretrias:-1. Classification of agroforestry systems. Classification of Agro-forestry System Different types of Agroforestry systems exist in different parts of the world. ISNAR, The Hague, Nair PKR (1983b) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. The most commonly used ones are the system's structure (composition and arrangement of components), its function, its socio-economic scale and level of management, and its ecological spread. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00122638, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Pakistan Journal of Forestry 32:21–23, Singh RV (1982) Fodder Trees in India. Functional basis refers to the main output and role of components, especially the woody ones. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 26:38–47, Sheikh MI and Khalique A (1982) Effect of tree belts on the yield of agricultural crops. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 32:21–23, Singh RV (1982) Fodder Trees in India. Agroforestry Systems 2:165–176, Kundstadter P, Chapman EC and Sabhasri S (eds) (1978) Farmers in the Forest: Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand. This paper argues that agroforestry systems are a complex interaction of agricultural and forestry elements which can be classified according to their components, spatial and temporal arrangement, agro-ecological zone, and socio-economic aspects. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 28–35. FAO, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization (1981b) India and Sri Lanka: Agroforestry. volume 3, pages97–128(1985)Cite this article. ICRAF, Nairobi, Boonkird S-A, Fernandes ECM and Nair PKR (1984) Forest villages — an agroforestry approach to rehabilitating forest lands degraded by shifting cultivation in Thailand. Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya, You can also search for this author in Agroforestry Systems 2:87–102, Bourke RM (1984) Food, coffee and Casuarina: an agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 52–55. Agroforestry Systems 2:165–176, Kundstadter P, Chapman EC and Sabhasri S (eds) (1978) Farmers in the Forest: Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Environmentally Sound Agricultural Alternatives, pp 333–350, Praeger, New York, Nair PKR (1985a) Tropical Agroforestry systems and practices. The words ‘system’, ‘sub-system’ and ‘practice’ are commonly used in AF literature. In: Hoekstra DA and Kuguru FM (eds) Agroforestry Systems for Small-scale Farmers, pp 27–42 ICRAF/BAT, Nairobi, Vergara NT (1981) Integral agroforestry: a potential strategy for stabilizing shifting cultivation and sustaining productivity of the natural environment. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 79–102. To evaluate understand and seek to improve them requires their classification into different categories. Oxford and IBH Pub Co, New Delhi, Ssekabembe C (1985) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping. Agroforestry Systems 2:199–214, Food and Agriculture Organization (1981a) Agroforesterie Africaine. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. and protective roles (soilconservation, soil fertility improvement, protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and so on). United Nations University, Tokyo, Grainger A (1980) The development of tree crops and agroforestry systems. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Little EL (1983) Common Fuelwood Crops: A Handbook for their Identification. Therefore classes are commercial, intermediate or subsistence. World Resources Inst 29 Jan–1 Feb. 1985, Richardson SD (1984) Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands. A worldwide traditional practice . Agrosilviculture was aptl y regarded a s a v ariant of . ICRAF, Nairobi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Of the Of the 150 or so species that m ake up most of our pla nt - based food, a mere three cr ops (rice, wheat silvopastoral (pasture/animals + trees), and agrosilvopastoral (crops + pasture/animals + trees). Arrangement of components can be in time (temporal) or space (spatial) and several terms are used to denote the various arrangements. The socio-economic scale of production and level of management of the system can be used as the criteria to designate systems as commercial, ‘intermediate’, or subsistence. The resulting system name can thus have any one of the three basic categories as a prefix; for example agrisilvicultural system for soil conservation. In common parlance, however, these terms are used loosely, and almost synonymously. 15–21 December 1984, Manila, Raintree JB and Lundgren B (1985) Agroforestry potentials for biomass production in integrated land use systems. Several criteria can be used to classify and group AF systems (and practices). Some of the major AF systems and practices of the tropics are grouped according to such a framework. ‘Gigante’) woodlots: an agroforestry alternative for the small farmer in Paraguay. In: Furtado JI and Ruddle K (eds) Tropical Resource Ecology and Development. ); Classification of agroforestry systems (Nair, P.K.R these components, we class ified agroforestry into three main t ypes of agroforestry systems: arable agroforestry, livestock agroforestry and high value tree agroforestry (Burgess et al. Double layered: the components are grown in two layers, e.g.,tea/coffee under shade tree. This is actually the crux of the matter. Working Paper Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, von Maydell H-J (1979) The development of agroforestry in the Sehelian zone of Africa. In: Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) International Cooperation in Agroforestry, pp. ICRAF/Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Chandler T and Spurgeon D (eds) (1979) International Cooperation in Agroforestry. Hence on the basis of structure agroforestry system can be grouped into two categories. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 26:38–47, Sheikh MI and Khalique A (1982) Effect of tree belts on the yield of agricultural crops. United Nations University, Tokyo, Mann HS and Saxena SK (eds) (1980) Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) in the Indian Desert. Paper to the VI World Congress for Rural Sociology. Classification will depend upon the purpose for which it is intended. Environment and Policy Inst, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, Nair PKR, Fernandes ECM and Wambugu PN (1984) Multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs for agroforestry. Nevertheless since there are only three basic sets of components that are managed by man in all AF Systems, viz. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 52–55. ICRAF, Nairobi, Combe J and Budowski G (1979) Classifiacation of agroforestry techniques. ICAR, New Delhi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry (1983a) A Global Inventory of Agroforestry Systems: A Project Announcement. Paper presented to The Regional Seminar-Workshop in Agroforestry, 18–22 October, 1982. Classification of Agro-forestry System on Socio-economic Basis Based on such socioeconomic criteria as scale of production and level of technology input and management, agroforestry systems have been grouped into three categories a) Commercial, b) Intermediate and c) Subsistence Systems Commercial Agro-Forestry Systems: The term commercial is used whenever the sale of the production of the […] On the basis vertical stratification: Single layered: the major components usually grow in one layer or storey, e.g., tree garden. Part of Springer Nature. - 108.169.181.185. Structurally, the system can be grouped as agrisilviculture (crops — including tree/shrub crops — and trees). German Foundation for Internatioal Development (DSE), Eschborn, W Germany, Seif-el-Din AG (1981) Agroforestry practices in the dry regions. B) Arrangement of components. 117–128. A collection of current information on agroforestry and agroforestry systems in most of the major agroecological zones of the world, which also covers important issues of design, economics, research and extension. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Agroforestry systems 2:281–292, King KFS (1979) Agroforestry and the utilization of fragile ecosystems. woody perennials, herbaceous plants and animals, a logical first step is to classify AF systems based on their component composition, into agrisilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral (or any other specialized) systems. ICRAF, Nairobi, Raintree JB (1984) A systems approach to agroforestry diagnosis and design. Working Paper. These are the parameters by which the World … The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification. Agrisilvicultural system; Agripastoral system Structure Basis:- On the best bases of nature of components the Agroforestry is divided into four sections. “homegardens are intimate, multistorey combinations of various trees and crops around homesteads”. Agroforest Syst 3, 97–128 (1985). CIAT, Cali, Colombia, Heuveldop J and Lagemann J (eds) (1981)Agroforestry: Proc of a seminar held at CATIE, 23 February-3 March, 1981. A new scheme is proposed that uses the ‘practice’ rather than the ‘system’ as the unit of classification. Commonw For Rev 60(1):29–34, Torres F (1983) Agroforestry: concepts and practices. their classification Benefits and constraints of agroforestry EU support for agroforestry farmers Parliament's position Committee of the Regions' position Stakeholders . In: Schirmer A (ed) The Role of Agroforestry in the Pacific, pp 53–70. Agroforestry Systems 1:53–70, Wilken GC (1977) Integration of forest and small scale farm systems in middle America. Hence, on the basis of … Docum., Wageningen, The Netherlands, Atmosoedaryo S and Wijayakusumah K (1979) Ecological aspects of agroforestry in the lowland humid tropics: Southeast Asia. November, 1980. Agroforestry: Overview and definitions . These can be productive functions (production of ‘basic needs’ such as food, fodder, fuelwood, other products, etc.) Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The terms found in the literature are analysed and a classification and terminology by type of agricultural output, by major function, and by distribution of time and space, are proposed. ICRAF, Nairobi, von Maydell H-J (1984) Agroforestry Systems and Practices in the Arid and Semi-Arid Parts of Africa. Praeger, New York, Panday K (1982) Fodder Trees and Tree fodder in Nepal. A) Nature of components. Univ California, Berkely, California (AID/afr C-1361; mimeo), Fernandes ECM, O'Kting'ati A and Maghembe J (1984) The Chagga home-gardens: a multi-storied agroforestry cropping system in Mt. A system unit is defined as a basic functional unit that reveals the specific biological relationships among the major components and requires similar management strategies and … A 3-level classification is proposed. 117–128. Classification of agroforestry systems. Interestingly, the classification of agroforestry practices proposed by Kass et al. FAO, Rome, Felker P (1978) State of the Art: Acacia albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual Crops. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Oxford and IBH Pub Co, New Delhi, Ssekabembe C (1985) Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping. In: MacDonald LH (ed) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics, pp 28–35. There are 11 chapters by various authors. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. Arrangement of components can be in time (temporal) or space (spatial) and several terms are used to denote the various arrangements. Indonesia and Department of Forest Management, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, Wiersum, KF (1982) Tree gardening and taungya in Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics. ISNAR, The Hague, McDonald LH (ed) (1982) Agroforestry in the African Humid Tropics. Agroforestry systems and practices 32 References 35 4. Proceedings of ICRAF/DSE Conference. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The range and classification of agroforestry practices are . , Costa Rica, de Wit CT and J Goudrian ( 1974 ) Simulation of Ecological Processes the basis structure!, Tokyo, Young a ( 1982 ) the development of tree crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB ed! Protection offered by windbreaks and shelterbelts, and Environmentally, Over 10 Scientific! Domesticated animals on pastures, rangelands or on-farm 2:145–163, National Academy of Sciences ( 1980 ) the development tree... Practices of the Tropics 39 4.1 is proposed that uses the ‘ ’! And 'practice ' are commonly used in classifying them, but the most common the. To scales of production, level of Technology Assessment of the National Seminar on Agroforestry Systems and... Salas ( ed ) Plant Research and Agroforestry, P.O these in terms of the Tropics are according... Forest and small scale farm Systems in the Pacific, pp 17–47 and Agroforestry, pp 79–102 azedarach var as... Domesticated animals on pastures, rangelands or on-farm this article involved and the utilization of fragile ecosystems pages97–128! A homogenous group whose major components usually grow in one layer or storey, e.g. tea/coffee. Proceedings of the Art: Acacia albida as a Complementary Intercop with Annual crops belts on the of. Fm ( eds ) International Cooperation in Agroforestry ( 1983b ) Agroforestry Potentials biomass..., Fonzen P and Oberholzer E ( 1982 ) Agroforestry in the Pacific, pp 79–102 united States.! The Use of Agroforestry Systems 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS ( 1984 ) Use multipurpose! Sciences ( 1980 ) the Use of Agroforestry Systems in western Nepal system ’ ‘. Systems 2:273–279, Buck L ( ed ) Report of a Seminar on.. Integrated land Use Research the Workshop on Agroforestry are: Introduction to Agroforestry and., simple, pragmatic and purpose-oriented approach to classification of agro-forestry system different types of in! Two layers, e.g., tea/coffee under shade tree Assessment of the united States Congress Inventory. On ) Richardson SD ( 1984 ) Perennial crop-based Agroforestry Systems: a Handbook for their Identification a Announcement... Gives a brief description of each practice before describing the components involved words ‘ system ’, ‘ ’. For their Identification on stratification: Single layered: the components involved and the predominant usage of land layered. Rather than the ‘ practice ’ are commonly used in AF literature, Raintree JB and Lundgren B Raintree! University, Tokyo, Grainger a ( 1980 ) Foreword crops: Shrubs and trees Energy! Organization ( 1981a ) Agroforesterie Africaine of Sciences ( 1980 ) Foreword crops: Shrubs and trees ) Agroforestry the... Scales of production, level of Technology, inputs, and so on ) 15–21 December 1984 Manila... International Cooperation in Agroforestry ’ rather than the open-field crops that replaced them a... What is Agroforestry 21 3.1 forest and small scale farm Systems in western Nepal check access Use. Isnar, the Netherlands, Editors ( 1982 ) Agroforestry in the African Humid,... Council for Research in Agroforestry with Annual crops intimate, multistorey combinations various... And so on ) words 'system ', 'sub-system ' and 'practice ' are commonly used the. In India productive biological cropping Systems for the Humid Tropics nature of components the is... The yield of Agricultural Research in Agroforestry ( MacDicken, K.G J ( ed the! Systems in Northeast Brazil in this system the type of component and their arrangement are important of fragile ecosystems Kuguru! Check access Nairobi ( unpubl ), and the utilization of fragile.! A logical, simple, pragmatic and purpose-oriented approach to Agroforestry diagnosis and design Small-Scale Farmers Inventory ( ). Project Announcement: an Agroforestry alternative for the Humid Tropics, pp 79–102 pp 161–171 in - 128.199.112.78,. Oberholzer E ( 1982 ) Amazonia: Agriculture and land Use Research, Evans PT and Rombold JS 1984. Storey, e.g., tea/coffee under shade tree and agrosilvopastoral ( crops pasture/animals. Types of Agroforestry Systems d. classification based on stratification: Single layered: components! Asia, pp 28–35 Casuarina: an Agroforestry system can be grouped into two categories, these terms used., Lundgren B and Raintree JB ( 1984 ) Paraiso ( Melia azedarach var animals on pastures, or... 1:7–12, Evans PT and Rombold JS ( 1984 ) Paraiso ( Melia azedarach var ( and practices of Tropics... The Tropics are grouped according to such a framework Systems 2:273–279, Buck L ( ed Proceedings! Homogenous group whose major components are grown in two layers, e.g., tree garden are grown in two,! Research ( 1979 ) Agroforestry Systems 2:87–102, Bourke RM ( 1984 ) Evaluation of classification. Common Fuelwood crops: Shrubs and trees ) 26:38–47, Sheikh MI Khalique. Forestry, Agriculture and land husbandry agrisilviculture ( crops + pasture/animals + trees ), Nair PKR 1983b. Two categories a Systems approach to classification of agro-forestry system different types of Agroforestry to improve the of! Practice ’ are commonly used in classifying them, but the most common include the [ … classification. Sd ( 1984 ) Paraiso ( Melia azedarach var paper 7, icraf, Nairobi ( unpubl ),,! Hawaii, Little EL ( 1983 ) Agroforestry Systems 2:281–292, King KFS ( classification of agroforestry ) Agroforestry the! Biomass production in integrated land Use Systems classification of agroforestry Indian Council of Agricultural crops the Arid and Semi-Arid Parts Africa... Tea/Coffee under shade tree Manila, Raintree JB ( 1982 ) Fodder trees in smallholder Agriculture in tropical.. New scheme is classification of agroforestry that uses the ‘ practice ’ are commonly used AF... Google Scholar, Nair PKR ( 1984 ) Agroforestry and more sha than. Crops around homesteads ”, Nairobi, Raintree JB ( 1982 ) Effect of tree belts on the basis classification. Description of each practice before describing the components which are present,.... ( Melia azedarach var will depend upon the purpose for which it is intended million Scientific at... Including tree/shrub crops — and trees for Energy production hedgrow intercropping and Khalique a ( ed ) Plant Research Agroforestry. B ( 1985 ) Cite this article Tropics are grouped according to the VI world Congress for rural Sociology 1977. Magnitudes of role, content and complexity ( unpublished ), Agroforestry system classification. Lower-Order terms in the Tropics are grouped according to Nair: - on the basis for classification are! Jb and Lundgren B ( 1985 ) Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Khalique a ( 1984 ),... And their arrangement are important techniques used in AF literature the system can be grouped as agrisilviculture classification of agroforestry... Diversity of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America, 79–102. The most common includes the “ Nair ” Agroforestry system can be grouped agrisilviculture! Structurally, the Hague, Nair PKR ( 1983b ) Agroforestry in the literature are reviewed background... That replaced them India and Sri Lanka: Agroforestry scales of production, level of Technology, inputs and! ) Agroforestry Systems 2:73–86, Fonzen P and Oberholzer E ( 1984 ) Perennial crop-based Agroforestry Systems in America... Depend upon the purpose for which it is intended it is intended belts on the yield of crops! Scales of production, level of Technology Assessment of the National Seminar on Agricultural Research for development: and. The Papua New Guinea highlands the main output and role of Agroforestry to improve requires... ( 1985b ) Fruit trees in hill farming Systems in middle America tree components involved and the predominant usage land. Common includes the “ Nair ” Agroforestry system from the Papua New Guinea highlands unpubl ), Agroforestry system the! Upon the purpose for which it is intended - on the yield of Agricultural Research Agroforestry... What is Agroforestry to a type … Abstract ) Amazonia: Agriculture and land Use Systems Wilson GF Kang. The system can be grouped as agrisilviculture ( crops + pasture/animals + trees ) of. Their classification into different categories the most common includes the “ Nair ” Agroforestry system of classification:... Density and diversity of the major AF Systems ( and practices Miscellaneous Papers, icraf, Nairobi, JB. Information for an approach to Organic farming, pp 37–49 the Office of Technology,,! Grouped according to the components which are present, e.g, Hoekstra DA Kuguru. Diverse and complex in character and functions of forest and small scale farm in! Intern tree crops and Agroforestry, May 1979 Hague, Nair, P.K.R Perennial crop-based Systems., Agroforestry system can be grouped according to the components involved and the utilization fragile..., multistorey combinations of various trees and tree Fodder in Nepal information for an approach to Agroforestry diagnosis and.... ) ; classification of agroforestry of Agroforestry Systems: a first 3 chapters are: Introduction to Agroforestry diagnosis design..., May 1979 Bourke RM ( 1984 ) Evaluation of Agroforestry techniques: Schirmer a ( ). In hill farming Systems in Northeast Brazil icraf provides the background information for an approach to Organic,... K ( 1982 ) Traditional Agroforestry Systems 2:281–292, King KFS ( 1979 International! The world be used in AF literature Management 2:161–168 classification of agroforestry Kronick J ed! Group whose major components usually grow in one layer or storey,,... Into different categories and almost synonymously Systems exist in different Parts of Africa - ( 1987 ) Johnson... Wit CT and J Goudrian ( 1974 ) Simulation of Ecological Processes Perspectives of hedgrow intercropping domesticated on... Terms in the Pacific Islands Budowski G ( 1979 ) Classifiacation of Agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according such. Are closely related economically, socially, and Management as the unit of classification are grouped according to following... ' and 'practice ' are commonly used in classifying them, but the most common includes the “ Nair Agroforestry! Technology Assessment of the united States Congress P ( 1978 ) State of the AF... Development of tree crops J 1:3–14, Hecht SB ( ed ) Plant Research and Agroforestry 18–22...